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  string(1570) "Background
It has been suggested that high relapse rates after antipsychotic treatment discontinuation could be explained on the basis of ?supersensitivity psychosis? (SSP). However, while diagnostic criteria have been proposed the construct validity of SSP has never been tested.
Objective
This study aims to investigate whether SSP could contribute to the high rates of symptom recurrence shortly after antipsychotic treatment discontinuation by comparing the nature of relapse events that occur soon after treatment discontinuation with those that occur later, as well as with previous psychotic episodes.
Study Design
Retrospective analysis of data from two studies in which patients were: 1) treated for at least 2 years for a first-episode of psychosis; 2) subsequently underwent treatment discontinuation and followed up until relapse; 3) underwent re-institution of the same treatment after the relapse-event and followed-up for a further 1 to two years.
Participants
Aged 16 to 45 years, meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizo-affective disorder.
Main Outcome Measures
Factor-analysis derived symptom domains will be compared between patients experiencing early relapse and later relapse, and between the first psychotic episode and the relapse episode
Statistical Analysis
Analyses will be conducted with the assistance of a biostatistician and will include descriptive statistics, factor analysis, univariate analyses and logistic regression analyses." ["project_brief_bg"]=> string(3126) "The effectiveness of antipsychotic medication for preventing relapse in schizophrenia is very well documented (Leucht et al.2012) and treatment discontinuation studies report extremely high rates of relapse, even after a single episode of psychosis (Zipursky et al.2014). For these reasons, long-term antipsychotic treatment has formed the foundation of maintenance treatment. However, recently concerns have been raised about possible harmful effects of long-term antipsychotic treatment (Moncrieff2015). In addition to the side-effect burden there are a few studies suggesting poorer outcome (Harrow et al.2012;Wunderink et al.2013) and greater loss of cerebral grey matter (Ho et al.2011) for patients who have had greater exposure to antipsychotic medication. These findings, together with those of a recent long-term study suggesting that a substantial number of patients stabilise and remain free of symptoms of psychosis without ongoing antipsychotic treatment (Morgan et al.2014), have reopened the debate on the need for maintenance antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia. Based on these findings, Moncrieff proposes that the time has come to reconsider the need for long-term antipsychotic maintenance treatment in schizophrenia (Moncrieff2015).
It has been argued that antipsychotic withdrawal studies are fundamentally flawed and that symptom exacerbation may be caused by the process of drug withdrawal itself, rather than representing the course of the underlying illness (Moncrieff2006). The concept of neuroleptic-induced supersensitivity psychosis (SSP) was originally introduced by Chouinard (Chouinard et al.1978). According to the hypothesis, SSP is similar to tardive dyskinesia insofar as it is thought to be caused by alteration of dopamine receptors secondary to prolonged neuroleptic blockade. It has been proposed that receptor changes in the dopaminergic pathways of the mesolimbic or other non-striatal dopaminergic regions of the brain could explain the disorder in the same way that changes in the neostriatum are thought to be responsible for tardive dyskinesia (Davis and Rosenberg1979).
While the validity of SSP has not been established as a diagnostic entity some researchers have conducted studies using the proposed criteria of Chouinard (Chouinard1991). For example, an association between abnormal involuntary movements and psychotic was reported in patients meeting SSP criteria (Fallon and Dursun2011), and a checklist derived from the Chouinard criteria applied to a patients experiencing a psychotic relapse reported the presence of SSP in 39% of patients (Fallon et al.2012). Also, SSP is proposed to be a cause of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (Kimura et al.2014;Suzuki et al.2015). However, the actual construct validity of SSP has not been tested.
Assumptions that SSP could explain the high relapse rates associated with treatment discontinuation have major clinical complications. The present study proposes to investigate whether SSP could contribute to the high rates of symptom recurrence shortly after antipsychotic treatment discontinuation." ["project_specific_aims"]=> string(783) "Using the combined dataset we aim to:
1. Compare the clinical characteristics of the relapse episode of the patients who relapsed early (within 12 weeks of treatment discontinuation) with those of the patients who relapsed later (after 12 weeks of treatment discontinuation).
2. Compare the clinical characteristics of the first psychotic episode with that of the relapse episode.
Research questions:
1. Can the very high rates of relapse shortly after antipsychotic treatment discontinuation be explained on the basis of phenomena such as SSP related to the process of drug withdrawal itself, rather than recurrence of the underlying illness?
2. And if so, can the condition be distinguished from illness recurrence on the basis of symptomatology?" ["project_study_design"]=> string(0) "" ["project_study_design_exp"]=> string(0) "" ["project_purposes"]=> array(0) { } ["project_purposes_exp"]=> string(0) "" ["project_software_used"]=> string(0) "" ["project_software_used_exp"]=> string(0) "" ["project_research_methods"]=> string(774) "We will analyse the combined datasets of two studies we conducted. The first had two components ? a 2yr outcome study (Emsley et al.2008) in 50 patients (NCT00216580), and an extension (Emsley et al.2012) in which 31 patients underwent discontinuation (NCT00378092). We are applying to YODA to use the full datasets for these two studies.
(The second study involves patients who were treated with flupenthixol decanoate for 2yrs (Chiliza et al.2014) and an extension (Emsley et al.2014) in which 33 patients underwent discontinuation. These data are in our possession.)
According to the proposed criteria (Chouinard et al.1978;Fallon et al.2012;Moncrieff2015) SSP should be characterised by:
? Rapid relapse shortly after antipsychotic discontinuation (" ["project_main_outcome_measure"]=> string(89) "The main outcome measure will be early relapse vs. later relapse. This will be defined as" ["project_main_predictor_indep"]=> string(232) "Symptom expression, defined according to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) factor-analysis derived symptom domains of positive, negative, disorganised, excitement/hostility and depression/ anxiety (Emsley et al.2003)." ["project_other_variables_interest"]=> string(362) "1. Demographics (age, sex, ethnicity, age of onset of illness)
2. Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S)
3. Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) (DSM-IV)
4. Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS)
5. Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale (ESRS) total and subscales for dyskinesia and parkinsonism" ["project_stat_analysis_plan"]=> string(1116) "Analyses will be conducted with the assistance of a biostatistician and will include descriptive statistics; factor analysis (using varimax rotation and selection of factors by eigenvalues greater than one, scree plot inspection, and forced five-factor models); depending on the nature of the data, parametric or no-parametric statistics will be used to compare continuous and categorical variables between the groups; backward step-wise logistic regression will be conducted with early/late relapse as the dependent variable and selection of predictors according to the univariate analyses. Treatment response will be compared between the groups by linear mixed-effect models for repeated measures.
The study will be limited by its small sample size. However, the strength of the study lies in the uniqueness of this dataset which enables us address the research question. To our knowledge no other datasets exist in which first-episode patients were treated according to standard protocols, followed by treatment discontinuation, and were subsequently treated and assessed for the second (relapse) episode." ["project_timeline"]=> string(115) "Projected start date: February 2016
Completion of analysis: July 2016
Manuscript completion: Dec 2016" ["project_dissemination_plan"]=> string(62) "Scientific publication(s); presentation at scientific meetings" ["project_bibliography"]=> string(4107) "

Chiliza B, Ojagbemi A, Esan O, Asmal L, Oosthuizen P, Kidd M, et al (2014): Combining depot antipsychotic with an assertive monitoring programme for treating first-episode schizophrenia in a resource-constrained setting. Early Interv Psychiatry .
Chouinard G (1991): Severe cases of neuroleptic-induced supersensitivity psychosis. Diagnostic criteria for the disorder and its treatment. Schizophr Res 5:21-33.
Chouinard G, Jones BD, Annable L (1978): Neuroleptic-induced supersensitivity psychosis. Am J Psychiatry 135:1409-1410.
Davis KL, Rosenberg GS (1979): Is there a limbic system equivalent of tardive dyskinesia? Biol Psychiatry 14:699-703.
Emsley R, Chiliza B, Asmal L, du PS, Phahladira L, van NE, et al (2014): A randomized, controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids plus an antioxidant for relapse prevention after antipsychotic discontinuation in first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 158:230-235.
Emsley R, Chiliza B, Asmal L, Harvey BH (2013): The nature of relapse in schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry 13:50.
Emsley R, Medori R, Koen L, Oosthuizen PP, Niehaus DJ, Rabinowitz J (2008): Long-acting injectable risperidone in the treatment of subjects with recent-onset psychosis: a preliminary study. J Clin Psychopharmacol 28:210-213.
Emsley R, Oosthuizen PP, Koen L, Niehaus DJ, Martinez G (2012): Symptom recurrence following intermittent treatment in first-episode schizophrenia successfully treated for 2 years: a 3-year open-label clinical study. J Clin Psychiatry 73:e541-e547.
Emsley R, Rabinowitz J, Torreman M (2003): The factor structure for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in recent-onset psychosis. Schizophr Res 61:47-57.
Fallon P, Dursun S, Deakin B (2012): Drug-induced supersensitivity psychosis revisited: characteristics of relapse in treatment-compliant patients. Ther Adv Psychopharmacol 2:13-22.
Fallon P, Dursun SM (2011): A naturalistic controlled study of relapsing schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia and supersensitivity psychosis. J Psychopharmacol 25:755-762.
Harrow M, Jobe TH, Faull RN (2012): Do all schizophrenia patients need antipsychotic treatment continuously throughout their lifetime? A 20-year longitudinal study. Psychol Med 42:2145-2155.
Ho BC, Andreasen NC, Ziebell S, Pierson R, Magnotta V (2011): Long-term antipsychotic treatment and brain volumes: a longitudinal study of first-episode schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 68:128-137.
Kimura H, Kanahara N, Komatsu N, Ishige M, Muneoka K, Yoshimura M, et al (2014): A prospective comparative study of risperidone long-acting injectable for treatment-resistant schizophrenia with dopamine supersensitivity psychosis. Schizophr Res 155:52-58.
Leucht S, Tardy M, Komossa K, Heres S, Kissling W, Davis JM (2012): Maintenance treatment with antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 5:CD008016.
Moncrieff J (2006): Why is it so difficult to stop psychiatric drug treatment? It may be nothing to do with the original problem. Med Hypotheses 67:517-523.
Moncrieff J (2015): Antipsychotic Maintenance Treatment: Time to Rethink? PLoS Med 12:e1001861.
Morgan C, Lappin J, Heslin M, Donoghue K, Lomas B, Reininghaus U, et al (2014): Reappraising the long-term course and outcome of psychotic disorders: the AESOP-10 study. Psychol Med 44:2713-2726.
Suzuki T, Kanahara N, Yamanaka H, Takase M, Kimura H, Watanabe H, et al (2015): Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis as a pivotal factor in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 227:278-282.
Wunderink L, Nieboer RM, Wiersma D, Sytema S, Nienhuis FJ (2013): Recovery in remitted first-episode psychosis at 7 years of follow-up of an early dose reduction/discontinuation or maintenance treatment strategy: long-term follow-up of a 2-year randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry 70:913-920.
Zipursky RB, Menezes NM, Streiner DL (2014): Risk of symptom recurrence with medication discontinuation in first-episode psychosis: a systematic review. Schizophr Res 152:408-414.

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2015-0676

General Information

How did you learn about the YODA Project?: Data Holder (Company)

Conflict of Interest

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Associated Trial(s):
  1. NCT00216580 - An Open-label Trial of Risperidone Long-acting Injectable in the Treatment of Subjects With Recent Onset Psychosis
  2. NCT00378092 - A Prospective Study of the Clinical Outcome Following Treatment Discontinuation After Remission in First-Episode Schizophrenia
What type of data are you looking for?: Individual Participant-Level Data, which includes Full CSR and all supporting documentation

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Data Request Status

Status: Concluded

Research Proposal

Project Title: Investigating the construct validity of supersensitivity psychosis: An analysis of data from two antipsychotic discontinuation studies

Scientific Abstract: Background
It has been suggested that high relapse rates after antipsychotic treatment discontinuation could be explained on the basis of ?supersensitivity psychosis? (SSP). However, while diagnostic criteria have been proposed the construct validity of SSP has never been tested.
Objective
This study aims to investigate whether SSP could contribute to the high rates of symptom recurrence shortly after antipsychotic treatment discontinuation by comparing the nature of relapse events that occur soon after treatment discontinuation with those that occur later, as well as with previous psychotic episodes.
Study Design
Retrospective analysis of data from two studies in which patients were: 1) treated for at least 2 years for a first-episode of psychosis; 2) subsequently underwent treatment discontinuation and followed up until relapse; 3) underwent re-institution of the same treatment after the relapse-event and followed-up for a further 1 to two years.
Participants
Aged 16 to 45 years, meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizo-affective disorder.
Main Outcome Measures
Factor-analysis derived symptom domains will be compared between patients experiencing early relapse and later relapse, and between the first psychotic episode and the relapse episode
Statistical Analysis
Analyses will be conducted with the assistance of a biostatistician and will include descriptive statistics, factor analysis, univariate analyses and logistic regression analyses.

Brief Project Background and Statement of Project Significance: The effectiveness of antipsychotic medication for preventing relapse in schizophrenia is very well documented (Leucht et al.2012) and treatment discontinuation studies report extremely high rates of relapse, even after a single episode of psychosis (Zipursky et al.2014). For these reasons, long-term antipsychotic treatment has formed the foundation of maintenance treatment. However, recently concerns have been raised about possible harmful effects of long-term antipsychotic treatment (Moncrieff2015). In addition to the side-effect burden there are a few studies suggesting poorer outcome (Harrow et al.2012;Wunderink et al.2013) and greater loss of cerebral grey matter (Ho et al.2011) for patients who have had greater exposure to antipsychotic medication. These findings, together with those of a recent long-term study suggesting that a substantial number of patients stabilise and remain free of symptoms of psychosis without ongoing antipsychotic treatment (Morgan et al.2014), have reopened the debate on the need for maintenance antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia. Based on these findings, Moncrieff proposes that the time has come to reconsider the need for long-term antipsychotic maintenance treatment in schizophrenia (Moncrieff2015).
It has been argued that antipsychotic withdrawal studies are fundamentally flawed and that symptom exacerbation may be caused by the process of drug withdrawal itself, rather than representing the course of the underlying illness (Moncrieff2006). The concept of neuroleptic-induced supersensitivity psychosis (SSP) was originally introduced by Chouinard (Chouinard et al.1978). According to the hypothesis, SSP is similar to tardive dyskinesia insofar as it is thought to be caused by alteration of dopamine receptors secondary to prolonged neuroleptic blockade. It has been proposed that receptor changes in the dopaminergic pathways of the mesolimbic or other non-striatal dopaminergic regions of the brain could explain the disorder in the same way that changes in the neostriatum are thought to be responsible for tardive dyskinesia (Davis and Rosenberg1979).
While the validity of SSP has not been established as a diagnostic entity some researchers have conducted studies using the proposed criteria of Chouinard (Chouinard1991). For example, an association between abnormal involuntary movements and psychotic was reported in patients meeting SSP criteria (Fallon and Dursun2011), and a checklist derived from the Chouinard criteria applied to a patients experiencing a psychotic relapse reported the presence of SSP in 39% of patients (Fallon et al.2012). Also, SSP is proposed to be a cause of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (Kimura et al.2014;Suzuki et al.2015). However, the actual construct validity of SSP has not been tested.
Assumptions that SSP could explain the high relapse rates associated with treatment discontinuation have major clinical complications. The present study proposes to investigate whether SSP could contribute to the high rates of symptom recurrence shortly after antipsychotic treatment discontinuation.

Specific Aims of the Project: Using the combined dataset we aim to:
1. Compare the clinical characteristics of the relapse episode of the patients who relapsed early (within 12 weeks of treatment discontinuation) with those of the patients who relapsed later (after 12 weeks of treatment discontinuation).
2. Compare the clinical characteristics of the first psychotic episode with that of the relapse episode.
Research questions:
1. Can the very high rates of relapse shortly after antipsychotic treatment discontinuation be explained on the basis of phenomena such as SSP related to the process of drug withdrawal itself, rather than recurrence of the underlying illness?
2. And if so, can the condition be distinguished from illness recurrence on the basis of symptomatology?

Study Design:

What is the purpose of the analysis being proposed? Please select all that apply.:

Software Used:

Data Source and Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria to be used to define the patient sample for your study: We will analyse the combined datasets of two studies we conducted. The first had two components ? a 2yr outcome study (Emsley et al.2008) in 50 patients (NCT00216580), and an extension (Emsley et al.2012) in which 31 patients underwent discontinuation (NCT00378092). We are applying to YODA to use the full datasets for these two studies.
(The second study involves patients who were treated with flupenthixol decanoate for 2yrs (Chiliza et al.2014) and an extension (Emsley et al.2014) in which 33 patients underwent discontinuation. These data are in our possession.)
According to the proposed criteria (Chouinard et al.1978;Fallon et al.2012;Moncrieff2015) SSP should be characterised by:
? Rapid relapse shortly after antipsychotic discontinuation (

Primary and Secondary Outcome Measure(s) and how they will be categorized/defined for your study: The main outcome measure will be early relapse vs. later relapse. This will be defined as

Main Predictor/Independent Variable and how it will be categorized/defined for your study: Symptom expression, defined according to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) factor-analysis derived symptom domains of positive, negative, disorganised, excitement/hostility and depression/ anxiety (Emsley et al.2003).

Other Variables of Interest that will be used in your analysis and how they will be categorized/defined for your study: 1. Demographics (age, sex, ethnicity, age of onset of illness)
2. Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S)
3. Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) (DSM-IV)
4. Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS)
5. Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale (ESRS) total and subscales for dyskinesia and parkinsonism

Statistical Analysis Plan: Analyses will be conducted with the assistance of a biostatistician and will include descriptive statistics; factor analysis (using varimax rotation and selection of factors by eigenvalues greater than one, scree plot inspection, and forced five-factor models); depending on the nature of the data, parametric or no-parametric statistics will be used to compare continuous and categorical variables between the groups; backward step-wise logistic regression will be conducted with early/late relapse as the dependent variable and selection of predictors according to the univariate analyses. Treatment response will be compared between the groups by linear mixed-effect models for repeated measures.
The study will be limited by its small sample size. However, the strength of the study lies in the uniqueness of this dataset which enables us address the research question. To our knowledge no other datasets exist in which first-episode patients were treated according to standard protocols, followed by treatment discontinuation, and were subsequently treated and assessed for the second (relapse) episode.

Narrative Summary: This study aims to investigate whether the entity of ?supersensitivity psychosis? could contribute to the very high rates of relapse that have been observed when antipsychotic treatment is discontinued. We plan to combine the data from two studies in which patients who were treated for two years for a first-episode of psychosis underwent treatment discontinuation. Patients who experienced early symptom recurrence (12 weeks). The relapse episode will also be compared to the first psychotic episode and the post-relapse treatment response, for the two groups.

Project Timeline: Projected start date: February 2016
Completion of analysis: July 2016
Manuscript completion: Dec 2016

Dissemination Plan: Scientific publication(s); presentation at scientific meetings

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